A biplane is a fixed-wing aircraft with two main wings stacked one above the other. The first aircraft to fly, the Wright Flyer, used a biplane design, as did most aircraft in the early years of aviation. While a biplane wing structure has a structural advantage over a monoplane, it produces more drag than a similar unbraced or cantilever monoplane wing. Improved structural techniques and materials and the quest for greater speed made the biplane configuration obsolete for most purposes by the late 1930s.In a biplane aircraft, two wings are placed one above the other. The lower wing is usually attached to the fuselage, while the upper wing is raised above the fuselage with an arrangement of cabane struts, although other arrangements have been used. Either or both of the main wings can support ailerons, while flaps are more usually positioned on the lower wing. Bracing is nearly always added between the upper and lower wings, in the form of wires and/or slender interplane struts positioned symmetrically on either side of the fuselage.
Aero C104Aero C104 biplanes were manufactured in Czehoslovakia. The C-104 types initially served in the Czechoslovak Air Force for basic and advanced training of pilots. In 1960 and 1961, the C-104 types also entered the table of international aviation records. The significance of these aircraft to the training of Czechoslovak military and sports pilots was considerable.
This is the aircraft in which John Alcock and Arthur Whitten Brown made the first non-stop crossing of the Atlantic in June 1919. The Vimy had been designed in 1917 as a bomber, but when the First World War ended this example was converted with extra fuel tanks to attempt the crossing. The pair left Newfoundland on 15 June and landed at Clifden in Connemara, Ireland some 16 hours later to become national heroes.
Avro 504R Gosport
The Avro 504R was a World War I biplane aircraft manufactured by A V Roe & Co. It was the most-produced aircraft of any kind that served in World War I, in any military capacity, during that conflict. Over 10,000 were built from 1913 to the time production ended in 1932. The "Gosport" was a reworked trainer with revised, lightweight structure built in 1926. Ten were sold to Argentina and more than 100 were built there under licence.
The Boeing Model 40 was a United States mail plane of the 1920s. It was a single-engined biplane that was widely used for airmail services in the United States in the 1920s and 1930s, especially by airlines that later became part of United Airlines.
The 14-Bis was a pioneer era biplance designed and built by Brazilian Engineer Alberto Santos-Dumont.
Bruguet biplanes proved to be of utmost reliability during World War I and became the most important aircraft of the French Flying forces.
The Bristol Tourer was a British civil utility biplane produced in the years following the World War I, based on the design of the Bristol Fighter aircraft.
Bristol Tourers operated by Western Australian Airways made the first scheduled airline services in Australia, commencing on 4 December 1921 between Peerth and Geraldton.
Caudron C 61
The Caudron C.61 was a French civil transport biplane aircraft built by the French aeroplane manufacturer Caudron. It was constructed of wood and covered by fabric
Designed as a trainer for the U.S. Army Air Service, the Curtiss JN-4 first flew in 1916. Known popularly as the "Jenny," the JN-4 taught thousands of Allied pilots to fly during World War I. After the war, surplus Jennys were widely used for "barnstorming"-traveling air shows-and they opened the first scheduled air mail service.
Designed to replace de Havilland DH-4s for delivering the air mail in the mid 1920s, Douglas M-2s were sturdy, dependable aircraft that were popular with the newly formed airlines.
The Douglas Cloudster was a 1920s American biplane aircraft. It was the only product of the Davis-Douglas Company; designed to make the first non-stop flight coast-to-coast across the United States.
The Cloudster attempted the coast-to-coast journey in June 1921but failed to make a non-stop journey due to engine failure. In 1923, the Cloudster was sold and modified for sightseeing flights with two additional open cockpits and seats for five passengers replacing one of the fuel tanks.
Henry Farman biplane was an early French aircraft designed and built by Henry Farman in 1909. Its design was widely imitated, so much so that aircraft of similar layout were generally referred to as being of the "Farman" type.
Farman 60 Biplane
Farman 60 Goliath was an airliner produced by the Farman Aviation works from 1919. It was instrumental in the creation of early airlines and commercial routes in Europe after World War I. The big, box-like fuselage of the wartime Goliath was easily modified to convert the aircraft into an airliner. Commercial aviation was beginning to be developed and was in need of purpose-built aircraft. With the new passenger cabin arrangement, the Goliath could carry up to 12 or 14 passengers. It had large windows to give the passengers a view of the surroundings.
Monde Sikorsky S-35
The Sikorsky S-35 was an American twin-engined sesquiplane transport later modified to three-engines. It was designed and built by the Sikorsky Manufacturing Company for an attempt by Rene Fonck on a non-stop Atlantic Crossing. It was destroyed in the attempt.
Sikorsky S-37: "Guardian" eight-seat two-engine biplane 1927
Nieuport-Delage NiD 29
The Nieuport-Delage NiD.29 was a French single-seat biplane fighter (C.I category) designed and built by Nieuport Delage for the French Air Force.
The Pitcairn Mailwings were developed by Pitcairn to carry Air Mail for the U.S. Postal Service. Of simple and robust construction, they also had relatively benign flying characteristics.
They were constructed using Chrome-moly steel tube and square-section spruce spars with spruce and plywood built-up ribs. The fuselage was faired using wooden formers and covered with fabric. The tail sections were built up from steel tube and fabric-covered. The Pitcairn Mailwing had a ground-adjustable fin and in-flight adjustable tailplane, features not often seen in other aircraft.
Pitts Special S-2A
The Pitts Special (company designations S1 and S2) is a series of light aerobatic biplanes designed by Curtis Pitts. It has accumulated many competition wins since its first flight in 1944. The Pitts biplanes dominated world aerobatic competition in the 1960s and 1970s and, even today, remain a potent competition aircraft in the lower categories.
The Simmonds Spartan is a two-seat biplane trainer/tourer aircraft built by Simmonds Aircraft Ltd in 1928. To reduce maintenance costs all four wings and ailerons were the same; this allowed one spare wing to be used in any position. Three aircraft were operated on floats in Fiji.
The Stearman C3 was an American built civil biplane aircraft of the 1920s, designed by Stearman Aircraft of Wichita, Kansas. The C3MB was a special mail-carrying aircraft based on the C3 with the forward cockpit enclosed as a dedicated cargo compartment.
Potez 25 was a French twin-seat, single-engine biplane designed during the 1920s. A multi-purpose fighter-bomber , it was designed as a line aircraft and used in a variety of roles, including fighter and escort missions, tactical bombing and reconnaissance missions. In the late 1920s and early 1930s, Potez 25 was the standard multi-purpose aircraft of over 20 air forces, including French, Polish and American. It was also popular among private operators, notably mail transport companies.
The Hansa-Brandenburg C.I, also known as Type LDD, was a 2-seater armed single-engine reconnaissance biplane.
The C.I served in the Austro-Hungarian Imperial and Royal Aviation Troops in visual- and photographic reconnaissance, artillery observation and light bombing duties from early spring 1916 to the end of World War I.
The Central Centaur IV was a British civil three-seat biplane aircraft produced by Central Aircraft Company of London. Eight aircraft were all built in 1919 as three-seaters and were initially used by Central Aircraft for joyriding or instruction at Northolt Aerodrome.